Researchers have made world's smallest transistor by using the world's thinnest material. Graphene, the best prospect for electronics devices, just one atom thick and ten atoms wide has made it possible.
Graphene was discovered in 2004 by Professor Andre Geim and Dr Kostya Novoselov at The University of Manchester. This one-atom-thick gauze of carbon atoms has become one of the hottest discussed matters in physics and materials science.
The most advanatgeous fact about graphene is its thickness. The other properties like optical transparency, chemically inertness, and magnificent conductivity make graphene highly appropriate for applications in various electro-optical devices that require conducting but transparent thin films. Reasearchers believe that graphene should improve the durability and simplify the technology of potential electronic devices that interact with light.
Graphene can be carved into small electronic circuits with individual transistors having a size equal to that of a molecule. As much the size of transistors will be smaller, better they will perform. Due to its unusual properties graphene is a promising material for nanoelectronics.
Scientists consider graphene as a potential substitute for replacing silicon in future electronic devices. It can play a major role in technological revolution. Some researches have been done on graphene as a material for future spintronic devices, possible components of future computers. Spintronic devices are those devices which make use of electron spin. In current electronic devices, the charge of electrons is used to operate information. Instead of the charge the intrinsic spin of electrons can also be used for this purpose. A number of such devices like non-volatile magnetic random access memory (MRAM) have already found their market-place in high-capacity hard drives.